What are Hardwood Lumber Grades Anyway?

Why Do We Have Hardwood Lumber Grades and What Do They Mean?

For someone just beginning to purchase hardwood lumber, lumber grades can be overwhelming. Most lumber companies use the generally accepted grading rules set by the National Hardwood Lumber Association.

To help you understand what these grades mean, here’s a short description on those grades.

What Does a Lumber Grade Mean?

Grades are based on the amount of usable clear material in a board. The highest grade boards are FAS and Select, followed by #1 Common and #2 Common. What grade you choose depends on your project. Some projects, such as tabletops and high quality furniture, may dictate the highest grade available. Many other projects are just as easily adapted to #1 Common (often referred to as cabinet grade) – kitchen cabinet doors, smaller projects and items where some character is acceptable.

lumbergrade

A lumber grader inspects lumber to designate a lumber grade.

About Hardwood Lumber Grading

The National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA: www.natlhardwood.org) rules were designed to provide the furniture industry a mathematically measurable method to grade lumber for its amount of clear, defect free wood. Since then, they’ve been be adopted across the hardwood industry as a way to consistently provide a similar product to customers time and time again.

Hardwood grades are based on the size and number of clear pieces that can be obtained from a board when it is cut up to be used to make a product. Grades are not determined by gut reactions to what a person thinks the grade should be, but actual measurements of clear sections and definitions for defects.

In practice, some of the above grades are rarely used in the commercial trade and others are typically combined. For example, lumber graded “Select & Better” would include FAS, F1F, and Select boards.

What Lumber Grade Should I Use?

The upper grades, FAS, F1F and SEL, are most suitable for mouldings, joinery products such as door frames, architectural interiors and furniture requiring a high percentage of long wide cuttings. It should be noticed that FAS – the highest grade – is not synonymous with being 100% clear material.

The Common grades are likely to be most suitable for the cabinet industry, most furniture parts and flooring. Explore the use of the common grades to achieve the most value considering lumber cost and yield.

The Steps in Determining Lumber Grade:

  1. Determine species.
  2. Calculate the Surface Measure (SM).
  3. Determine the poor side of the board.
  4. From this poor face, calculate the percentage of clear wood available.

Note: If Number 1 Common is the grade of the poor face, check the better face to see if it will grade FAS for the F1F or Selects grades to be achieved.

  1. Once the grade is determined, check for any special features such as sapwood or heartwood cuttings for special color sorts.
  2. Sort to bundles according to buyer and seller specifications.

 

 

For a full illustrated guide to the various grades.

Learn more about NHLA.

Potential Woods for Use in Outdoor Applications

When you’re constructing a deck or building Adirondack chairs for your backyard, you want to make sure you choose a wood that can stand up to the elements.  While many people go straight to treated yellow pine for outdoor projects (it is the cheapest and most common option), there are plenty of wood species that hold up at least as well even when left untreated.  Here are a few woods to consider for your next outdoor project.

Ipe

This tropical hardwood from Central and South America makes an excellent choice for outdoor projects, including decking.  Ipe is very hard and dense and resists warping, cracking, and decay extremely well.  Its oil and extractive content makes it highly resistant to insects and fungi, and untreated ipe can last up to 40 years outdoors.  Its density makes it fairly impervious to denting and foot traffic, but also hard to cut. 

Teak

Long a popular choice for boat building, teak is another good candidate for outdoor applications.  Teak is prized for its beauty as well as its durability outdoors, and you can expect to pay a premium for it.  Teak’s high stability means it won’t shrink or expand much with changes in humidity, and its natural oils and extractives repel water and deter insects.  Unlike ipe, teak works easily.  One caveat: most teak on the market is not sustainably sourced, so if you’re concerned about the environmental impact of your wood choices, look for certified sustainable forested teak. 

African Mahogany

Less expensive than teak but more expensive than ipe, African mahogany is another top of the line choice for outdoor applications.  African mahogany is a durable hardwood that resists decay, infestation, and warping and is easy to work.  Left untreated, its durability will endure a very long time, but its beautiful reddish color will fade to gray.

VG Fir

Vertical Grain (VG) Fir has been a traditional choice for porches for over a century due to its wide availability and durability, both of which still make it a good choice today. VG fir is quite dimensionally stable, so it expands and contracts evenly and is unlikely to warp.  Naturally resistant to decay and insects, VG fir can last 10-15 years outdoors untreated, and is an affordable choice.

Western Red Cedar

Western Red Cedar is another widely available, reasonably affordable choice for outdoor use.  It’s dimensionally stable, typically straight-grained, and resists warping, decay, and insects (including termites).  Untreated, Western Red Cedar will last about 20 years outdoors.  As cedar is a softwood, you can expect to see some damage from foot traffic if using it as decking or flooring.  Beware of splitting when driving fasteners, and expect tannins to appear as stains around them.

What You Need to Know About Hardwood Plywood

Hardwood plywood is a great choice for furniture, cabinets, and many other projects due to its strength, stability, and convenience.

​​What is Plywood?

Plywood is an engineered wood product consisting of three to seven layers of thin sheets of wood veneer that are then glued together.  Each veneer is laid with its grain at a right angle to the last (or tighter angles such as 45 degrees in some plywood). This is done to create a product with high dimensional stability that resists splitting and warping.

​​What are the Advantages of Plywood over Solid Stock?

Plywood’s main advantage over solid stock is its high strength and stability.  Its availability in a variety of thicknesses and sizes often makes plywood a more convenient choice as well.  Plywood comes in a variety of thicknesses (typically 1/8″, 1/4″, 3/8″, 1/2″, and 3/4″), which can eliminate the need to plane your own boards.  It also comes in large sheets (typically 4’x8’), which can eliminate the need for edge-joining.

​​What are the Disadvantages of Plywood?

The face veneers of plywood are very thin—1/30 of an inch, on average.  This can make plywood hard to cut without splintering, and doesn’t leave much after sanding.  Plywood is heavier than solid stock and more susceptible to water damage, which could be problematic for some applications.  The edges must be finished specially, usually with edge banding, to conceal the layers.

​​How Does the Cost of Hardwood Plywood Compare to Boards?

By the board foot, hardwood plywood is comparable in price to solid hardwood.

​​What are Good Uses for Hardwood Plywood?

Hardwood plywood is well suited for a variety of common uses.  It is often used in cabinetry and furniture making.  Many musical instruments are made from hardwood plywood, including pianos and string instruments.

​​What do the Different Plywood Grades Mean?

Plywood is graded A-D (best to worst) for its front face and 1-4 (best to worst) for its back. A1, A2, B1, and B2 are acceptable for applications where both sides will be seen, while A4 or B4 would be fine for projects where the back will not show.​

Guide to Plywood Core Options

When it comes to plywood, is it what’s on the inside that counts?  All hardwood plywood has a face and back veneer of hardwood, but the core can vary.  Here’s what you need to know about the different plywood cores available.

Veneer Core Plywood

The most common type of plywood core is made up of layers of veneer–typically fir in the west, poplar in the east, and aspen in the northeast.  Of the three most common types of plywood core, veneer core is the lightest (approximately 70 pounds per 4×8 panel) and has the best strength, stability, and screw-holding properties.  It is also the most expensive and the least uniform, since the layers of wood veneer have natural voids.

Particleboard Core Plywood (PBC)

The cheapest core option is particleboard, which consists of refined wood particles of varying sizes bonded with urea formaldehyde.  It is the weakest plywood core option (although still denser than solid wood) and does not hold screws as well.  PBC is also very heavy (a 4×8 panel weights approximately 100 pounds) and swells up when exposed to moisture.  It does offer a more uniform texture than veneer core plywood, creating a smooth void-free surface for veneer.

Medium-Density Fiberboard Plywood Core (MDF)

MDF is an engineered wood product similar to particleboard in which the refined wood particles are of a smaller, uniformly sawdust-like consistency.  It’s a step up from PBC and down from veneer core in terms of strength, stability, and screw holding ability, and is priced between them.  Like particle board, MDF is very heavy, will soak up water, and offers a void-free surface for veneer application.  Because of its very uniform consistency, cut edges appear smooth and are easy to finish with paint.

Combination Core Plywood

Combination core is a less common and more expensive option used with some expensive hardwood veneers. A combination core uses a layer of MDF or particleboard directly under the face and back veneers and veneer layers in the middle to get the best of both worlds—a smooth, uniform surface for face veneer application combined with the strength and stability of a veneer core.

The Rise of Alder – A Wood Highlight of Alder Lumber

What is Alder?

Only 20 years ago, no one had heard of this hardwood lumber from the Pacific Northwest called alder. These days, alder is a popular choice for many hardwood applications, with demand for alder lumber reflecting this new popularity.

Red alder is the most common hardwood tree growing in the Pacific Northwest. Through a proactive campaign of education, marketing, and creative use, alder is now a highly sought after hardwood throughout both the Pacific Northwest and around the world.

What is Alder Wood Used For?

Most of the higher grade lumber is used for furniture, cabinetry, and turned products. Alder is also used in doors, millwork, decorative woodwork, carvings, and edge-glued panels.

Alder dries to an even honey tone and can be finished to resemble more expensive fine-grained species. There is little color variation between the heartwood and sapwood, making alder also ideal for light or natural finishes. Alder’s popularity continues to grow among fine furniture and cabinetry makers worldwide.

Why Are Alder Grades Different?

Most companies that produce or sell large quantities of alder use a proprietary grading system to address some of the unique qualities of alder lumber. Alder lumber is marketed in over 20 distinct grades. It is often marketed for the furniture and cabinet industry and successfully competes in paneling and pallet stock markets. Similar to typical NHLA grades, yield and clear cuttings are part of most alder grade determinations. In addition, alder grades take into account the character marks allowed in the wood. Pin knots are common and not considered a defect.

What Are the Typical Sizes of Alder Lumber?

Alder trees are naturally smaller than many other commercially desirable hardwood trees. This is reflected in the more limited widths and lengths of alder lumber. Most alder lumber ranges in length between 6 feet and 12 feet, with the majority either 8 or 10 feet long. Most available lumber is 4/4 and 5/4, with some 6/4 and 8/4 stock available in more limited quantities.

Proprietary grading addresses the more limited sizes of alder lumber whichtill allows users to utilize alder in the best manner possible.

What Are the Characteristics of Alder Wood?

Alder has an excellent reputation for machining and is also a desirable wood for turning. Alder can be nailed without splitting or screwed without pre-drilling. It glues well and can be sanded to a smooth finish. Alder is evenly textured, with a subdued grain pattern, and has a moderate weight and hardness.

Because of its uniform, small pore structure and consistency of color, alder is a preferred wood for finishing. It accepts a variety of stain types and can be successfully substituted for other woods when properly colored stains are applied. When finished natural, it has a warm honey color.
More Information on Alder:

Learn more about alder lumber.

Find a distributor near you.

Learn more about alder, the tree.

 

What is the Difference Between Gross Tally and Net Tally?

One of the most confounding measurements to understand if you haven’t been around the sawmill and lumber business for a long time is gross tally and net tally. What exactly is the difference between gross tally and net tally? And why is lumber sold both net tally and gross tally? How do you convert from gross tally to net tally? We’ll take you through the basics.

What is the Difference Between Gross Tally and Net Tally?

Gross tally, also sometimes called green tally, is the volume of wood in board feet delivered to the mill after it is cut. This lumber hasn’t been dried yet and has a high amount of moisture in it. When lumber dries, water is removed from the wood resulting in a smaller overall volume of wood. That smaller volume of wood is known as net tally.

Gross Tally >> the lumber volume measured before kiln drying.

Net Tally >> the lumber volume measured after kiln drying.

Why is Net Tally versus Gross Tally a Big Deal?Stacked up wood

It is necessary to understand whether a lumber quote or price is based on gross tally or net tally. The issue isn’t always whether the tally is net or gross, but how that number was determined. Find out whether the tally was measured after coming out of the kiln or whether the gross tally was used to calculate net. This will make a difference in the actual volume of lumber.

Also ask what shrinkage rate was used for your lumber. Each sawmill may use a different shrinkage rate to determine net tally – usually between 7% and 9%. In addition, how a company calculates it also slightly changes the resulting volume numbers. If a company uses 8% but multiplies by 1.08 that will return a different volume number than if they divide by 0.92.

How Should I Buy Lumber – Gross Tally or Net Tally?

Since hardwood lumber invoices are based on measured board footage, it is important to know if the price you are being quoted and paying is based on a gross tally or net tally. Sometimes it may seem a deal is too good to be true and it may be. Sometimes the reason for that unbelievable price is hiding in the tally.

Be sure you clarify if the transaction you are conducting is measured on gross measure or net measure. Know what your price is per the type of tally. If you are ordering lumber with additional remanufacturing, be sure to find out how that is accounted for in the overall volume you will receive. A straight line rip will cause the volume of lumber to shrink again.

Buying net tally can reduce confusion and will give you the tools to accurately determine the volume of lumber you are receiving. However, either tally method can be used IF you have answers to all of the variables that affect the overall volume.

8 Woodworking Tips to Boost Your Efficiency

Guest Blog by Ron Smith

We’ve all heard the adage: work smarter, not harder. It makes good sense, so here are eight woodworking tips to make your shop work easier and more efficient:

1 – Sanding made easier

SandingBlockSanding woodwork by hand may seem like a chore, but with special tools and high-quality sandpaper, you’ll get excellent results that often outshine a power sander. Besides, it’s quieter, doesn’t produce clouds of dust, and may get into places power sanders can’t.

Use a sanding block for faster, more efficient results. It distributes sanding pressure more evenly and maintains a flatter surface than merely folding a piece of sandpaper. Also, change sandpaper often.

Sand with the grain of the wood, especially for the final grits. To remove deep scratches and stains, angle across the grain up to about 45º for the first sanding. Before moving to the next finer grit, sand with the grain to remove all cross-grain scratches.

For sanding painted surfaces, buy clog-resistant sandpaper. The paint will build up slower than on standard sandpaper.

2 – Avoid drywall screws for woodworking

When screwing two pieces of wood together, use the traditional wood screw over the drywall screw for better results.

A drywall screw is threaded the full length. Since the top threads tend to grip the first board it enters, this can force two pieces of wood apart slightly because you have threads in both boards.

The top part of a wood screw, on the other hand, has a smooth shank that won’t grip the first board. This makes it easier to clamp two pieces of wood together.

There’s another reason to avoid drywall screws: The hardened, brittle steel shafts of drywall screws will often break during installation, especially when screwed into hardwoods. Removing them from a finished material is nearly impossible and getting them out damages the surface.

Wood screws are made of thicker, softer metal, so they’re break-resistant.

Wood screws do, however, require you drill:

  • A pilot hole for the threads
  • A wider counterbore hole the length of the non-threaded shaft
  • A countersink hole for setting the head

However, you can easily handle all three drilling chores by buying a set of three countersinking bits. They handle most common screw sizes.

3 – Know your wood’s moisture content

When building with wood, you must know the correct moisture content of each piece of wood.

Too dry, and the finished product may swell or crack. Too moist, and the end product may shrink or warp. It’s no wonder experts say incorrect moisture causes 80% of all woodworking problems.

WoodMoistureAppTherefore, it’s critical to know the moisture content of each piece of wood before it is used. For instance, if you’re planning an inlay job using two different species of wood, you’ll need to know the moisture content of each type so that your inlay glue joints stay intact.

A failsafe way to avoid a ruined project is to use a moisture meter.

Wagner Meters is one provider for both professionals and hobbyists a variety of highly accurate, professional-grade moisture meters.

Use a free wood moisture app

To help solve your moisture problems easily and quickly, Wagner offers you the FREE Wood H2O mobile app. This handy app calculates equilibrium moisture content (EMC), troubleshoots many common wood moisture problems, and accesses helpful resources.

Download your FREE mobile app here.

4 – Prevent excess glue stains

To eliminate stains caused by oozing glue along joints, clamp the pieces together without glue. Apply masking tape over the joint and then cut it with a utility knife.

Next, separate the pieces, apply the glue, and clamp them together again. The glue will ooze onto the tape, not the wood. Remove the tape before the glue dries.

5 – Measure with a drafting square

Make accurate measuring and marking layouts on boards faster and easier with a drafting square – available at any art supply store.

When you need an accurate square in the 2- to 3-foot range, drafting squares beat the cumbersome drywall squares for accuracy and eliminate the hassle of hooking up a carpenter square.

6 – Keep a clean, orderly workspace

Achieving efficiency in your shop can sometimes be as simple as clearing clutter from your work area. A disorderly work area can hinder your productivity.

Another tip: Only keep out items that you use daily. Everything else should be put in designated areas so they’re quickly retrievable when needed.

7 – Keep a well-lit shop

Pay special attention to lighting. You should have consistent and ample illumination on all work areas so you can work from any angle without casting shadows. This ensures safety and productivity.

Consider:

  • Overhead lighting
  • Focused lighting
  • On-tool lights

Painting walls and the ceiling white can help diffuse the light.

8 – Keep your blades sharp

Dull tools such as chisels, blades, planes, scrapers and gouges don’t cut cleanly. They tear at the wood fibers resulting in a fuzzy, uneven, unprofessional look.

Tools that have been chipped or nicked require grinding. A bench grinder, wet grinder, or even a belt sander can be used.

Avoid letting your tool get too hot when using a bench grinder or belt sander to prevent it from losing temper. Dipping it in a pan of cool water every few seconds will help.

After grinding, proceed to honing using either a flat wet stone or oil stone. A wet stone is preferred when doing fine woodworking.

The final step is polishing using a fine wet stone, a stropping wheel or leather.

Tools with sharper blades make woodworking easier, more efficient, and safer.

Closing comments…

Achieving efficiency in your shop won’t just improve your productivity and help you work faster and easier, it’ll also make you feel accomplished and more satisfied.

Special Thanks to Wagner Meters for Providing This Blog.

Wood Highlight: American Walnut

Walnut – A Timeless Hardwood Choice

Walnut, a popular, widely available hardwood, has a straight grain and varies in color from a yellow sapwood to a rich, deep brown heartwood. Black Walnut, the most common variety, is grown in the eastern hardwood forests, while English Walnut is grown in California. Walnut is the only dark brown domestic wood.

Common Uses for Walnut

Walnut is a popular choice for furniture, flooring, and countertops, as well as small projects. It is also used in gunstocks because it withstands heavy recoil and does not warp. Many high quality early American furniture was made of walnut. Today, walnut is a favored choice for live edge tables.

walnutwoodgrainWood Properties of Walnut

Walnut is quite strong, with a score of 1010 on the Janka scale—comparable to cherry. It is moderately heavy and hard and has a fine, open grain, which is generally straight, although it can be irregular. Color can vary widely, even across the same board, from yellow sapwood to deep chocolate brown heartwood. Walnut dries slowly, with little shrinkage.  Its rich patina and luster improve with age. Walnut has a high resistance to decay, although it is vulnerable to insect damage. While it still compares favorably in price to exotics, walnut is one of the most expensive domestic hardwoods.

walnutwoodenlampWoodworking with Walnut

Walnut is quite easy to work with as long as it has a straight, regular grain (which it typically does). It works easily with hand and machine tools and nails, screws, and glues well. Walnut also holds stain well and polishes nicely.  It is excellent for turning or carving and responds well to steam bending. If less color variation is desired, walnut can be steamed to match the sapwood to the heartwood.

Cool Facts about Walnut

Walnut tree roots release juglone, a toxin that kills other plants growing above them.

Dogs can become ill after eating the husks from black walnuts.

Early American colonists exported walnut wood to England as early as 1610.

Wood Highlight: Hickory

The hickories are an important group within the eastern hardwood forests. Botanically, they are split into two groups; the true hickories, and the pecan hickories (fruit bearing). The wood is virtually the same for both and is usually sold together. The sapwood of hickory and pecan is white, tinged with brown while the heartwood is pale to reddish brown. Both are coarse textured and the grain is usually straight but can be wavy or irregular.

Common Uses for Hickory

Hickory is being used more and more for hardwood flooring, furniture, and cabinetry. Lending itself to an attractive rustic look and its hard-wearing properties, hickory is an excellent choice when durability is a key factor. Hardness and durability are key reasons that Hickory has long been popular for tool handles, wooden ladders, dowels, and sporting goods.

Hickory is also often sought after for home projects. The durability and sturdiness of hickory cabinets and hardwood flooring makes hickory a good choice for home and commercial projects. The strength and moisture-resistance of hickory also lend it to use in areas like kitchens, laundry rooms, high-traffic areas, and even children’s bedrooms.

HickoryWoodGrain_WestonPremiumWoods-comWorking with Hickory Wood

The heaviest of American hardwoods, hickory can be difficult to machine and glue, and are very hard to work with hand tools, so care is needed. The wood hold nails and screws well, but with a tendency to split so pre-boring is advised. The wood can be sanded to a good finish. The wood is well-known for its very good strength and shock resistance and also has excellent steam-bending properties. It is extremely tough and resilient, quite hard, but only moderately heavy. Read more on the specific wood qualities of hickory.

Wood Properties of Hickory

Perhaps the most desirable aspect of hickory wood is the unique combination of strength, hardness, and toughness that cannot be found in any other species. It is considered an extremely durable wood, thought to be able to withstand nearly anything. On the Janka scale, hickory comes in at an impressive 1820. That’s about 41% harder than the traditional Red Oak. It is the second hardest hardwood species in North America.

 

Cool facts about Hickory in History

  • In Eastern North America, it survived the catastrophic changes of the Glacial Epoch 50 million years ago, earning the title of first strictly American hardwood species.
  • Pioneers heading westward made hickory wagon wheels a prerequisite.
  • The Wright brothers whittled hickory for their “flying contraption.”
  • Hickory sawdust and chips are used to flavor meat by smoking.

 

Why Does Dried Wood Absorb Moisture?

Wood and Moisture: It’s All Biology

The hardwood lumber that you buy at the lumberyard began as a living tree. As a living tree, the trunk of the tree provided a way to transport water from the roots to the leaves. When the tree is cut down that water moving system is still present in that tree and much of that water is still in the lumber when it is first sawn.

Hardwood lumber just cut, referred to as green lumber, can have a moisture content of 40% or more! After hardwood lumber is sawn, it is typically air-dried to around 15% moisture content. Hardwood lumber will be continued to be dried in a kiln to a moisture content of 6-9%.

Wood is hygroscopic, which means just like a sponge the moisture content will change depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. When humidity increases, the wood absorbs moisture from the air causing the wood to expand. When the humidity decreases, the wood releases water into the air and the wood shrinks.

What Direction Does Wood Expand In?

When wood expands and contracts because of changes in moisture content, hardwood will move in a predictable way. Wood shrinks most in the direction of the annual growth rings (tangentially), and half as much across the rings (radially), and only slightly along the grain (longitudinally). or from the center of the tree to the outer edge).

Hardwood shrinks most in the direction of the annual growth rings (tangentially), about half as much across the growth rings (radially), and only slightly along the grain (longitudinally).

Flat-sawn boards will cup away from the heart of the tree. The shrinking will occur mostly in its width.
Rift-sawn boards will warp and shrink into a diamond or trapezoidal shape.
Quarter-sawn boards will shrink slightly in both length and width.

What Do I Do About Moisture and Wood Movement?

The solution to this problem is quite simple: don’t stop the wood from moving, but rather account for its movement. With a little bit of knowledge, you can predict the degree of wood movement, and take action to accommodate the movement.

Differences to Know When Designing With Quarter Sawn Hardwood

Quarter sawn hardwoods are beautiful and distinctive. The unique look of quarter sawn hardwoods lend itself to an array of design styles, from traditional to modern.

But, when designing with solid quarter sawn hardwoods, it is important to understand how the uniqueness of this wood comes with a limitation in product width.

Why Is Quarter Sawn Lumber Narrow?

In order to obtain the distinctive straight-grained appearance of quarter sawn lumber, logs must be sawn in a different way. The log is first cut in half and then into halves again. After being cut into quarters, each quarter section is placed on the mill in a position so that the annual rings are as close to 90 degrees (perpendicular) to the face of each board as possible when sawn.

By sawing the log in this way, quarter sawn lumber yields more waste and therefore the end result is narrower boards, in comparison to plain sawn lumber sawing methods.

Print       plain-sawn

 

Why is Quarter Sawn Hardwood More Expensive?

Quarter sawn hardwood can command a premium over plain sawn lumber. This is primarily due to a more limited availability of quarter sawn lumber – both because of the lower number of boards made from each log and combined with a much smaller number of suppliers producing this kind of lumber. This limited availability of quarter sawn lumber results in a premium price for this type of lumber.

Is Quarter Sawn Hardwood Worth It?

The principal benefit of the quarter-sawing technique is that all of the grain will be straight, resulting in a more dimensionally stable product. Quarter sawn lumber typically does not warp, twist, or cup. A narrow grain pattern is typically evident on the face of the board. Flecks are generally evident in quarter sawn red oak and white oak, but can also be seen in other species. Read more about quarter sawn wood.

Is Quarter Sawn Wood Still A Green Choice?

Many have asked whether the higher waste involved in making quarter sawn wood result in a product that is less environmentally friendly than traditional lumber. The answer is simple – quarter sawn wood is a sound environmental choice. (Read more on why solid wood is a great design choice for our environment.) Companies who produce quarter sawn lumber use the rest of the log in a variety of ways. Bark can be turned into mulch and wood chips supply paper companies, while sawdust is often used on-site to fuel drying kilns. No part of the log is left unused.

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